Forest Health Bibliography

Articles W-X

Wagner, D. L., D. R. Tobi, W. E. Wallner, and B. L. Parker, Korscheltellus gracilis (Grote): A pest of red spruce and balsam fir roots (lepidoptera: hepialidae), Can. Ent., 123, 255-263, 1991.

Waite, C. E., D. H. DeHayes, J. Rebbeck, G. A. Schier, and A. H. Johnson, The influence of elevated ozone on freezing tolerance of red spruce seedlings, New Phytol., 126, 327-335, 1994.

Walcek, C. J., R. A. Brost, J. S. Chang, and M. L. Wesely, SO2, sulfate and HNO3 deposition velocities computed using regional landuse and meteorological data, Atmos. Environ., 20, 949-964, 1986.

Walker, W. J., C. S. Cronan, and P. R. Bloom, Aluminum solubility in organic soil horizons from northern and southern forested watersheds, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 54, 369-374, 1990.

Wallin, G., L. Skärby, and G. Selldén, Long-term exposure of Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.) Karst., to ozone in open-top chambers, I. Effects on the capacity of net photosynthesis, dark respiratio and leaf conductance of shoots of different ages, New Phytol., 115, 335-344, 1990.

Wallin, G., L. Skärby, and G. Selldén, Long-term exposure of Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.) Karst., to ozone in open-top chambers, III. Effects on the light response of net photosynthesis in shoots of different ages, New Phytol., 115, 387-394, 1990.

Wallin, G., S. Ottosson, and G. Selldén, Long-term exposure of Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.) Karst., to ozone in open-top chambers, IV. Effects on the stomatal and non-stomatal limitation of photosynthesis and on the carboxylation efficiency, New Phytol., 115, 395-401, 1990.

Wallner, W. E., D. L. Wagner, B. L. Parker, and D. R. Tobi, Bioecology of the conifer swift moth, Korscheltellus gracilis, a root feeder associated with spruce-fir decline, in Y. N. Baranchikov, W. J. Mattson, F. P. Hain, and T. L. Payne, eds., Forest Insect Guides: Patterns of Interaction with Host Trees, U.S. Dept. Agric. For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-153, 1991, pp. 199-204.

Wang, D., F. H. Bormann, and D. F. Karnosky, Regional tree growth reductions due to ambient ozone: Evidence from field experiments, Environ. Sci. Technol., 20, 1122-1125, 1986.

Wang, D., D. F. Karnosky, and F. H. Bormann, Effects of ambient ozone on the productivity of Populus tremuloides Michx. grown under field conditions, Can. J. For. Res., 16, 47-55, 1986.

Wang, W., and T. Wang, On acid rain formation in China, Atmos. Environ., 23, 4091-4093, 1996.

Wang, Z. M., M. J. Lechowicz, and C. Potvin, Early selection of black spruce seedlings and global change: Which genotypes should we favor?, Ecological Applic., 4, 604-616, 1994.

Wang, Z. M., M. J. Lechowicz, and C. Potvin, Responses of black spruce seedlings to simulated present versus future seedbed environments, Can. J. For. Res., 25, 545-554, 1995.

Wäreborn, I., Changes in the land mollusc fauna and soil chemistry in an upland district in southern Sweden, Ecography, 15, 62-69, 1992.

Wargo, P. M., Consequences of environmental stress on oak: predisposition to pathogens, Ann. Sci. For., 53, 359-368, 1996.

Waring, R. H., Responses of evergreen trees to multiple stresses, Ch. 17 in H. A. Mooney, W. E. Winner, and E. J. Pell (eds.), Response of Plants to Multiple Stresses, Academic Press, San Diego, Calif., 371-390, 1991.

Waring, R. H., Searching for specific measures of physiological stress in forest ecosystems, Ch. 11 in J. Cole, G. Lovett, and S. Findlay (eds.), Comparative Analysis of Ecosystems, Springer-Verlag, New York, 222-238, 1991.

Warrington, S., T. A. Mansfield, and J. B. Whittaker, Effect of SO2 on the reproduction of pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and the impact of SO2 and aphids on the growth and yield of peas, Environ. Pollut., 48,m 285-294, 1987.

Warrington, S., and J. B. Whittaker, Interactions between Sitka spruce, the green spruce aphid, sulphur dioxide pollution and drought, Environ. Pollut., 65, 363-370, 1990.

Weathers, K. C., G. M. Lovett, and G. E. Likens, Cloud deposition to a spruce forest edge, Atmos. Environ., 29, 665-672, 1995.

Webb, S. L., and M. G. Glenn, Red spruce decline: A major role for acid deposition, Ecology, 74, 2170-2071, 1993.

Webb, S. L., M. G. Glenn, E. R. Cook, W. S. Wagner, and R. D. Thetford, Range edge red spruce in New Jersey, U.S.A.: Bog versus upland population structure and climate responses, J. Biogeography, 20, 63-78, 1993.

Webb, W. L., W. K. Lauenroth, S. R. Szarek, and R. S. Kinerson, Primary production and abiotic controls in forests, grasslands, and desert ecosystems in the United States, Ecology, 64, 134-151, 1983.

Weber, J. A., C. S. Clark, and W. E. Hogsett, Analysis of the relationships among O3 uptake, conductance, and photosynthesis i needles of Pinus ponderosa, Tree Physiol., 13, 157-172, 1993.

Weber, J. A., and N. E. Grulke, Response of stem growth and function to air pollution, Ch. 15 in Plant Stems, Academic Press, 343-363, 1995.

Weber, U. M., and F. H. Schweingruber, A dendroecological reconstruction of westren spruce budworm outbreaks (Choristoneura occidentalis) in the Front Range, Colorado, from 1720-1986, Trees, 9, 204-213, 1995.

Wedin, D. A., and D. Tilman, Influence of nitrogen loading and species composition on the carbon balance of grasslands, Science, 274, 1720-1723, 1996.

Weinstein, D. A., and R. M. Beloin, Evaluating effects of pollutants on integrated tree processes: A model of carbon, water, and nutrient balances, Ch. 28 in Dixon, R. K., R. S. Meldahl, G. A. Ruark, and W. G. Warren, eds., Process Modeling of Forest Growth Responses to Environmental Stress, Timber Press, 313-323, 1990.

Weinstein, D. A., R. M. Beloin, and R. D. Yanai, Modeling changes in red spruce carbon balance and allocation in response to interacting ozone and nutrient stresses, Tree Physiology, 9, 127-146, 1991.

Weinstein, D. A., and R. D. Yanai, Integrating the effects of simultaneous multiple stresses on plants using the simulation model TREGRO, J. Environ. Qual., 23, 418-428, 1994.

Weissen, F., A. Hambuckers, H. J. van Praag, and J. Remacle, A decennial control of N-cycle in the Belgian Ardenne forest ecosystems, Plant and Soil, 128, 59-66, 1990.

Wellburn, A. R., Genetic and environmental contributions to the winter hardiness of conifers, Bot. J. of Scotland, 47, 193-209, 1995.

Wellburn, F. A. M., K.-K. Lau, P. M. K. Milling, and A. R. Wellburn, Drought and air pollution affect nitrogen cycling and free radical scavenging in Pinus halepensis (Mill.), J. Experiment. Bot., 47, 1361-1367, 1996.

Wendell, R. R., and K. D. Ritchey, High-calcium flue gas desulfurization products reduce aluminum toxicity in an Appalacian soil, J. Environ. Qual., 25, 1401-1410, 1996.

Werner, R. A., Forest insect research in boreal forests of Alaska, Entomol. (Trends in Agric. Sci.), 2, 35-46, 1994.

Werner, R. A., and J. W. Hilgert, Effects of permethrin on aquatic organisms in a freshwater stream in south-central Alaska, J. Econ. Entomol., 85, 860-864, 1992.

Werner, R. A., and B. L. Illman, Response of Lutz, Sitka, and white spruce to attack by Dendroctonus rufipennis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) and blue stain fungi, Environ. Entomol., 23, 472-478, 1994.

Wessel, W. W., and A. Tietema, Metal distribution across different pools in the organic layer of a forest under acid deposition and its consequences for the metal dynamics, Plant and Soil, 171, 341-350, 1995.

Wessler, A., and A. Wild, Investigations on the content of indole-3-acetic acid in spruce needles of healthy and damaged trees of various sites, J. Plant Physiol., 141, 615-620, 1003.

Wesselink, L. G., G. Grosskurth, and J. J. M van Grinsven, Measureing and modeling mineral weathering in an acid forest soil, Solling, Germany, Ch. 6 in Quantitative Modeling of Soil Forming Processes, Soil Sci. Soc. Am., Special Pub. 39, 1994.

Wesselink, L. G., K.-J. Meiwes, E. Matzner, and A. Stein, Long-term changes in water and soil chemistry in spruce and beech forests, Dolling, Germany, Environ. Sci. Technol., 29, 51-58, 1995.

Wesselink, L. G., N. van Breemen, J. Mulder, and P. H. Janssen, A simple model of soil organic matter complexation to predict the solubility of aluminium in acid forest soils, Europ. J. Soil Sci., 47, 373-384, 1996.

West, D. C., T. W. Doyle, M. L. Tharp, J. J. Beauchamp, W. J. Platt, and D. J. Downing, Recent growth increases in old-growth longleaf pine, Can. J. For. Res., 23, 846-853, 1993.

Westenbarger, D. A., and G. B. Frisvold, Agricultural exposure to ozone and acid precipitation, Atmos. Environ., 28, 2895-2907, 1994.

Westin, J., L.-G. Sundblad, and J.-E. Hällgren, Seasonal variation in photochemical activity and hardiness in clones of Norway spruce (Picea abies), Tree Physiol., 15, 685-689, 1995.

Whittaker, J. B., L. W. Kristiansen, T. N. Mikkelsen, and R. Moore, Responses to ozone of insects feeding on a crop and a weed species, Environ. Pollut., 62, 89-101, 1989.

Whittaker, J. B., and S. Warrington, Effects of atmospheric pollutants on interactions between insects and their food plants, Ch. 7 in J. J. Burdon and S. R. Leather, eds., Pests, Pathogens and Plant Communities, 97-110, 1990, Blackwell Scientific Pub., Oxford, England.

White, W. H., The components of atmospheric light extinction: A survey of ground-level budgets, Atmos. Environ., 24A, 2673-2679, 1990.

Wieser, G., and W. M. Havranek, Ozone uptake in the sun and shade crown of spruce: Quantifying the physiological effects of ozone exposure, Trees, 7, 227-232, 1993.

Wild, A., P. Strobel, and U. Flammersfeld, Studies of components of the thylakoid membrane of undamaged and damaged spruce trees at different mountain sites, Z. Naturforsch. 48c, 911-922, 1993.

Wild, A., and V. Schmitt, Diagnosis of damage to Norway spruce (Picea abies) through biochemical criteria, Physiologia Plantarum, 93, 375-382, 1995.

Williams, M., E. B. Rastetter, D. N. Fernandes, M. L. Goulden, S. C. Wofsy, G. R. Shaver, J. M. Melillo, J. W. Munger, S.-M. Fan, and K. J. Nadelhoffer, Modelling the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum in a Quercus-Acer stand at Harvard Forest: The regulation of stomatal conductance by light, nitrogen and soil/plant hydraulic properties, Plant, Cell and Environ., 19, 911-927, 1996.

Williams, M. W., J. S. Baron, N. Caine, R. Sommerfeld, and R. Sanford, Jr., Nitrogen saturation in the Rocky Mountains, Environ. Sci. Technol., 30, 640-646, 1996.

Wilmot, T. R., D. S. Ellsworth, and M. T. Tyree, Relationships among crown condition, growth, and stand nutrition in seven northern Vermont sugarbushes, Can. J. For. Res., 25, 386-397, 1995.

Wilson, E. J., Foliar uptake and release of inorganic nitrogen compounds in Pinus sylvestris L. and Picea abies (L.) Karst., New Phytol., 120, 407-416, 1992.

Wilson, E. J., and R. A. Skeffington, The effects of excess nitrogen deposition on young Norway spruce trees. Part I, The soil, Environ. Pollution, 86, 141-151, 1994.

Wilson, E. J., and R. A. Skeffington, The effects of excess nitrogen deposition on young Norway spruce trees. Part II, The vegetation, Environ. Pollution, 86, 153-160, 1994.

Wiltshire, J.J.J., C.J. Wright, M.H. Unsworth, and J. Craigon, THe effects of ozone episodes on autumn leaf fall in apple, New Phytol., 124, 433-437, 1993.

Wiltshire, J.J.J., C.J. Wright, J.J. Colls, J. Craigon, and M.H. Unsworth, Some foliar characteristics of ash trees (Fraxinus excelsior) exposed to ozone episodes, New Phytol., 134, 623-630, 1996.

Winner, W. E., Mechanistic analysis of plant responses to air pollution, Ecological Applications, 4, 651-661, 1994.

Winner, W. E., A. S. Lefohn, I. S. Cotter et al., Plant responses to elevational gradients of O3exposures in Virginia, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA, 86, 8828-8832, 1989.

Wolfe, G. T., and P. E. Korsog, Atmospheric concentrations and regional source apportionments of sulfate, nitrate and sulfur dioxide in the Berkshire Mountains in western Massachusetts, Atmos. Environ., 23, 55-65, 1989.

Wolfe, M. N., J. M. Kelly, and J. D. Wolt, Soil pH and extractable sulfate-sulfur distribution as influences by tree species and distance from the stem, Soil Science Soc. Am. J., 51, 1042-1046, 1987.

Wolt, J. D., Effects of acidic deposition on the chemical form and bioavailability of soil aluminum and manganese, in A. A. Lucier and S. G. Haines (eds.), Mechanisms of Forest Response to Acidic Deposition, Springer-Verlag, New York, 62-107, 1990.

Woodbury, P. B., R. G. Amundson, R. J. Kohut, and J. A. Laurence, Stomatal conductance, whole-tree water use, and foliar carbohydrate status of red spruce saplings exposed to ozone, acid precipitation, and drought, Tropospheric ozone and the environment II Effects, Modeling and Control, Air & Waste Manage. Assoc. Transaction Series, TR-20, 1992.

Woodbury, P. B., J. A. Laurence, and G. W. Hudler, Chronic ozone exposure alters the growth of leaves, stems and roots of hybrid Populus, Environ. Pollut., 85, 103-108, 1994.

Woodbury, P. B., J. A. Laurence, and G. W. Hudler, Chronic ozone exposure increases the susceptibility of hybrid Populus to disease caused by Septoria musiva, Environ. Pollut., 86, 109-114, 1994.

Woodcock, H., P. Vollenweider, R. Dubs, and R.-M. Hofer, Crown alterations induced by decline: A study of relationships between growth rate and crown morphology in beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), Trees, 9, 279-288, 1995.

Woodman, J. N., and E. B. Cowling, Airborne chemicals and forest health, Environ. Sci. Technol., 21, 120-126, 1987.

Wooldridge, G., K. Zeller, and R. Musselman, Ozone concentration characteristics at a high-elevation forest site, Thror. Appl. Climatol., 56, 153-164, 1997.

Worbes, M., S. Bonn, and T. Riemer, Methods for determining losses and potential factors affecting annual rings in trees and environmentally damaged forest stands (in German), Forstw. Cbl., 114, 313-325, 1995.

Wright, R. F., E. Lotse, and A. Semb, Reversibility of acidification shown by whole-catchment experiments, Nature, 334, 670-675, 1988.

Wright, R. F., J. G. M. Roelofs, M. Bredemeier et al., NITREX: Responses of coniferous forest ecosystems to experimentally changed deposition of nitrogen, Forest Ecology and Management, 71, 163-169, 1995.

Wright, R. F., and A. Tietema, Ecosystem response to 9 years of nitrogen addition at Sogndal, Norway, Forest Ecology and Management, 71, 133-142, 1995.

Wulff, A., S. Anttonen, W. Heller, H. Sandermann Jr., and L. Kärenlampi, Ozone-sensitivity of Scots pine and Norway spruce from morthern and local origin to long-term open-field fumigation in central Finland, Environ. Experiment. Bot., 36, 209-227, 1996.

Wulff, A., A. Crosslye, and L. J. Sheppard, Fine structure of acid mist treated Sitka spruce needles: Open-top chamber and field experiments, Annals of Botany, 77, 1-10, 1996.

Wulff, A., and L. Kärenlampi, Effects of long-term open-air exposure to fluoride, nitrogen compounds and SO2 on visible symptoms, pollutant accumulation and ultrastructure of Scots pine and Norway spruce seedlings, Trees, 10, 157-171, 1996.

Wullschleger, S. D., P. J. Hanson, and G. S. Edwards, Growth and maintenance respiration in leaves of northern red oak seedlings and mature trees after 3 years of ozone exposure, Plant, Cell and Environ., 19, 577-584, 1996.

Wyttenbach, A., S. Bajo, L. Tobler, and Th. Keller, Major and trace element concentrations in needles of Picea abies: Levels, distribution functions, correlations and environmental influences, Plant and Soil, 85, 313-325, 1985.

Wyttenbach, A., S. Bajo, J. Bucher, V. Furrer, P. Schleppi, and L. Tobler, The concentration of Ca, Sr, Ba and Mn in successive needle age classes of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.], Trees, 10, 31-39, 1995.

Wyttenbach, A., P. Schleppi, L. Tobler, S. Bajo, and J. Bucher, Concentrations of nutritional and trace elements in needles of Norway spruce (Picea abied [L.] Karst.) as functions of the needle age class, Plant and Soil, 168-169, 305-312, 1995.


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